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Capella University Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Lab Application Question

Capella University Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Lab Application Question

Question Description

  • Define the following terms:
    • Cellular respiration (aerobic respiration) (2 points)- This is the aerobic process of how cells are able to transform energy that is contained in sugar molecules into chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the form of ATP. The 3 steps of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and Electron Transport Chain are what Cellular Respiration is made of.
    • Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) (2 points)- This is an anaerobic respiration process where the pyruvate formed in glycolysis is into ethanol or lactate. If you compare fermentation to cellular respiration, this process is a little bit less efficient for the production of energy. Fermentation is however, useful as it enables cells to replace NAD+ and FAD+. This also will allow the glycolysis process to continue when a cell doesn’t have enough oxygen.
  • Summarize what occurs during the three steps of cellular respiration and indicate where each process takes place in the cell. (6 points)
    • Glycolysis- This happens in the cytoplasm of all living cells. This occurs when the glucose is reduced into 2 molecules of pyruvate and releases 2 molecules of ATP.
    • Krebs cycle-This takes places in the Mitochondria of an aerobic cell. This is where the pyruvate is reduced into carbon dioxide. When the pyruvate is reduced, this causes 2 molecules of ATP to be released.
    • Oxidative phosphorylation- This take place in the Mitochondria In aerobic conditions, NADH and FADH2 created in the glycolysis and krebs cycle are restored by limiting the oxygen to water.
  • What is the primary energy molecule in cells? (5 points)- The primary energy molecule in cells is Adenosine Triphosphate. It sores energy that is released through the cellular respiration process. ATP is released when a cell requires energy to perform another metabolic function.
  • List the equation in word and chemical form for each of the following processes: (6 points)
  • Does glycolysis require the presence of oxygen? Please explain your answer. (5 points)- No, glycolysis doesn’t require the presence of oxygen. All cells have the capacity to continue the glycolysis process and use alternative methods for NAD+ and FAD+. The regeneration process for these specific molecules via oxidative phosphorylation as well as the krebs cycle and more efficient than without the presence of oxygen (fermentation)
  • Why was phenol red used as an indicator of cellular respiration? (5 points)-The phenol red was used to observe and monitor carbon dioxide that was released during the lab. The carbon dioxide in this case was mildly acid and the phenol red changed colors from red to yellow showing that carbon dioxide was produced.
  • How did exercise affect the rate of cellular respiration? (Hint: Review the time it took for the solution to change with and without exercise). (5 points)- This exercise increased the rate of cellular respiration. The phenol red took minimal time to change its color from red to yellow when applying air at an almost equal rate. After performing this exercise, there was a higher concentration of carbon dioxide. This was due to there was a larger amount of carbon dioxide released by a quicker cellular respiration.
  • What color was the phenol red solution for each tube after 4 hours elapsed? (8 points)
    • Control- This control remained red. This indicated that there was no carbon dioxide
    • Dried peas- The dried peas remained red. This indicated that any formation of carbon dioxide minimal
    • Germinating peas- The phenol red changed colors from red to yellow. This indicated a large amount of carbon dioxide
    • Boiled peas-The phenol red didn’t seem to change colors. This indicated that any formation of carbon dioxide was minimal
  • Compare cellular respiration in the dried, germinating, and boiled peas. Explain why some peas in the experiment produced carbon dioxide (CO2) while other peas did not. (5 points)- The germinated peas were the only item capable of cellular respiration.When testing the dried peas and the boiled peas, there was no change to the phenol red that would indicate any concentration of carbon dioxide. 
  • What is the advantage of cellular respiration? (5 points)- The advantage of cellular respiration is that is produces a large amount of energy. Cellular respiration strengthens energy production longer than glycolysis or fermentation. Cellular Respiration produces ATP that can also be used in other chemical reactions within a cell. Other processes such as fermentation for example are not as efficient to producing energy.
    • The balloons were sealed in this procedure. What is the name for the energy conversion process that occurs in the absence of oxygen? (2 points)- Alcohol Fermentation
    • What is the advantage of this process? (2 points)- It allows yeast to recharge NAD+ and FAD+ and allow glycolysis to continue. This allows for the continual synthesis of ATP
    • What type of gas is produced by yeast under anaerobic conditions? (2 points)- Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide
  • What was the final volume of each balloon after 120 minutes? (6 points)
    • 4.187 x 4.13 = 288 cm3
    • 4.187 x 2.53 = 65 cm3
    • 4.187 x 2.83 = 92 cm3
    • 4.187 x 3.93 = 248 cm3
    • 4.187 x 3.63 = 194 cm3
    • 4.187 x 3.53 = 180 cm3
  • Based on the results, what was the best source of energy (e.g., food) for the yeast? (3 points)- Sugar was the best energy source
  • Based on the results, what was the worst source of energy (e.g., food) for the yeast? (3 points)- The combination of salt and sugar was the worst energy source
  • What factors (ingredients) negatively affected the growth of yeast? (3 points)- The sugar and lemon juice both negatively effected the yeast. The volume after the fermentation reduced when sugar was used and then when either the salt or lemon juice with added with the sugar.
  • What is the name for the type of fermentation that yeast use? (3 points)- Alcoholic Fermentation. 
  • List two commercial uses of fermentation. (2 points)
  • (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to cellular respiration and fermentation be useful to you as a healthcare professional? (20 points)

Cellular respiration- C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38ADP + 38Pi ? 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP- This is where a molecule of glucose is oxidized by 6 oxygen molecules. It is then transformed into 6 carbon dioxide molecules as well as 6 molecules of water. The energy is released and stored as ATP

Alcoholic fermentation- C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2Pi ? 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP- This is where a molecule of glucose is oxidized into 2 molecules of ethanol and also 2 molecules of carbon dioxide. During this fermentation, the energy that is released is stored into the form of ATP

Lactic acid fermentation- C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2Pi ? 2CH3CHOHCOOH + 2ATP-This is where a molecule of glucose is oxidized into 2 molecules of lactic acid. During this fermentation, the energy that is released is stored into the form of ATP.

Review the results from the Rate of Cellular Respiration and Exercise procedure of the lab (Part I) to answer the following questions.

Review the results from the Cellular Respiration in Peas procedure of the lab (Part II) to answer the following questions.

Review the results from the Fermentation procedure of the lab (Part III) to answer the following questions.

a. Making alcoholic beverages such as beer or wine

b. Making yogurt

APPLICATION QUESTION 

  • (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to cellular respiration and fermentation be useful to you as a healthcare professional? (20 points)

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