Each page answer different questions:
Question 1.8 (Johnstone, pp.20-22)
Look at the examples of transcriptions provided. Note the differences between these examples. Notice the various features of the interaction that have been included in the sample, such as tone of voice, laughter, stress & intonation curves, simultaneous talking and even non-standard spellings. Why might a discourse analyst choose to include or omit some of these features? How do these choices relate to Johnstones claim that transcriptions of speech are representations of speakers as well as being representative of speech (p. 19)?
Question 1.10 (P. 25).
In addition to answering the question asked, discuss your own understanding of what Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) might mean and its use of the term critical.
Question 2.11 (Johnstone, pp.64-67)
After reading the critique by A. Shuck about the ways in which cycling accidents are framed in the press, consider the 20 examples of sentences taken from news articles. For your analysis, consider the following:
a) What words choices are used to refer to both cyclists and drivers (motorists)? Consider the differences in how they are named across all of the examples.
b)How is agency represented? Are the agents clear or hidden? How is this done linguistically?
Once you have finished your analysis, what conclusions can you draw? Do you agree with Shuck’s claim?
Question 2.22 (Johnstone, P. 72)
Read Section 2.4 on the role of silence carefully before answering. In particular focus on the 1st two questions Johnstone asks and this one: How is silence viewed cross-culturally? In your own cross-cultural experiences what have you noticed about the way silence is viewed and interpreted?
Question 1: Consider your own relationship to standard varieties and dialects, either in English or another language you know well. Do you remember how you were taught the different varieties, and what messages you received about correct forms of language? What are the benefits to speaking a standard variety? What are the benefits to speaking another variety? To what extent should schools insist on using a standard variety? Why (or why not?) Be sure to reference the Lippi-Green articles in your response.
Question 2: In Johnstone, Answer Question 2.18 (p. 70). During the course of a week, pay attention to the various media you consume (TV shows, YouTube video, movies, etc) and their use of accents. When/why are accents employed? To what effect? Include your observations in your answer to this question. Be specific in your answer about the show or media you watched in your answer. [Note: By doing this you will also be answering the question posed in the book. No need to duplicate!]
This week, I would like you to dig deeper into the analysis of the exchange between Rep. Yoho and Rep. Ocasio-Cortez on the floor of the House of Representatives. Please listen again to both speeches (links are provided in Module Week 5). In addition to the class discussions, continue your analysis, referring specifically to these key concepts from Johnstone:
- Linguistic cues, paralinguistic cues, and metapragmatic discourse moves
- Persuasive strategies, such as repetition and parallelism
- Use of analogies
- Shifting styles (declamatory, expository, folk)
- Discourse markers (marking “mini-chapters” in the text)
- Strategic linguistic choices
- Larger Discourses that are referenced by the speakers (and why)
Based on your analysis, why do you think that Yoho’s speech was mostly discounted as an apology and Ocasio-Cortez’s speech was seen as the more persuasive of the two?
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