Primary or secondary source?
The author reports on and explains historical theories and discussions. Does this make this reading a primary or a secondary source?
Historical or contemporary source?
Was this text written in our era (roughly, second half of the 20th century/ 21th century) or is it from a different historical period?
WORKING THROUGH THE SECTIONS OF THE TEXT
The term is a compound of taxis (ancient Greek = order, arrangement) and nomos (ancient Greek = law), literally meaning the laws according to which things are ordered.
In systematics, taxonomy refers to the study of the general principles of scientific classification.
In classification, taxonomy refers to the orderly arrangement of plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships.
Schiebinger uses the term in the second, more narrow sense. The article is about historical beliefs about the natural relationships of the human species to other animal species.
p. 11, 1st paragraph
Who was Carolus Linnaeus / Carl von Linné?
What is the term he introduced into zoological taxonomy in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae?
What does the term literally mean?
What was the purpose/function of the term?
MAMMALIA THE GENEALOGY OF A TERM
p. 12, 1st paragraph
A binomial name is a name consisting of two (bi-) names.
Generic refers to the genus to which an organism belongs to.
Specific refers to the species to which an organism belongs to.
Canis is a genus, or group, of dog-like species, with members such as wolves, dogs, coyotes, jackals, etc.
Lupus is the name for the members of the species wolf.
Canis lupus is the scientific name for wolf.
Latrans is the name for members of the species coyote.
Canis latrans is the scientific name for coyote, etc.
This system of scientific names, still in use, was introduced by Linnaeus.
p. 13, 1st full paragraph
Naturalists was the term for what we today would refer to as scientists.
Quadruped means organism with four legs.
Why did it enrage naturalists when Linnaeus ranked humans among the quadrupeds?
What did Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, point out as problematic in regard to many species which Linnaeus included into the class of quadrupeds?
p. 13, 2nd full paragraph
What is the meaning of Pilosa?
p. 13, 3rd paragraph
Viviparous refers to bring forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent, from vivus (Latin = alive) and parus (Latin = bearing).
Why are mammae (milk-secreting breasts) not a universal character of mammals?
HOW SIGNIFICANT ARE THE MAMMAE?
p. 15, 1st full paragraph
Pilosa those with hair
Aurecaviga those with hollow ears / three ear bones
Lactentia those who lactate
Sugentia those who suckle
BREASTS AND MOTHERS MILK: PROBLEMATIC ICONS
p. 15, 1st paragraph of section
We already saw the bare female breast embodied by the strident Marianne as the symbol of freedom during the French Revolution.
p. 15, 2nd paragraph
In response to which question did Linnaeus create the term Mammalia?
What does the female breast become an icon for?
As a break with what tradition could this be interpreted?
p. 15, 3rd paragraph
What is the other term that Linnaeus introduced in the same volume of his work?
What does the term literally mean?
What was its function?
How had man been traditionally distinguished from animals?
p. 16, 1st and 2nd paragraphs
Linnaeus introduced the term mammalia and homo sapiens to relate the human species to the animal world. Each term has a distinct function. How does each term work in characterizing the relation of the human species to other animal species?
GENDER POLITICS IN TAXONOMY
p. 21, 1st paragraph of section
Despite the Enlightenment credo that all men (humans) are equal, which segment of the population was not thought of as entitled to become fully enfranchised citizens or professionals?
What is wet-nursing?
p. 22, bottom paragraph
According to Linnaeus, which laws do wet-nursing violate?
p. 23, top paragraph
According to Linnaeus, what should human mothers do with their mothers milk?
RACE, SEX, AND THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING
p. 24, 1st paragraph of section
We will talk about the Great Chain of Being during our Zoom meeting.
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